Posts Tagged 'soger'

Heblish – Hebrew lessons: Day 45

Let’s talk

Free Hebrew lessons – November 2010 – Training – Day 45

Shalom ve’boker tov (Hi and good morning),

Today we will talk…

In our previous lesson we learned about the “ti” suffix for first person (“I”) past tense verbs.

Today, we will review some of the verbs we’ve learned in our previous lessons, and try to use them with some words we learned in lesson 11. No rules, no headaches…

Today’s menu: Let’s talk

Attention: The underlined letters represent the accent.

Let’s take a look at the verbs we learned in lesson 39:

English Verb Hebrew Verb
break shover
count sofer
drive noheg
close soger
sell mo^er
wear lovesh

 

Now, let’s see the words we learned in lesson 11:

Feminine nouns – dress, cake, ring

English singular Heblish singular English plural Heblish plural
dress simla dresses smalot
cake uga cakes ugot
ring tabaat (ta-ba-at) rings tabaot

 

Masculine nouns – book, bottle, bracelet

English singular Heblish singular English plural Heblish plural
book sefer books sfarim
bottle bakbuk bottles bakbukim
bracelet tsamid bracelets tsmidim

 

Present Tense

I break the bottle (m)ani shover et ha’bakbuk.

I count cakes  (f) –     ani soferet ugot.
He counts cakes – hu sofer ugot.

I’m driving my car (f)ani noheget ba’me^onit sheli. (me^onit: a car, sheli: my or mine.)

I close the book (m)ani soger et ha’sefer.
I close the book (f)ani sogeret et ha’sefer.

I sell bracelets (m)ani mo^er tsmidim.
I sell bracelets (f)ani mo^eret tsmidim.

I wear the dress (f)ani loveshet et ha’simla.
I’m wearing a dress (f)ani loveshet simla.

 

 

Past Tense
Remember: for first person past tense there is no gender.

I broke a bottle (m)+(f)shavarti bakbuk.

I counted cakes (m)+(f) safarti ugot.
I counted books – who can guess what the Hebrew translation for this is? (Answer at the end of the lesson)

I drove her car (m)+(f) nahagti ba’me^onit shela.

I closed the window (m)+(f) sagarti et ha’^alon (window = ^alon)

I sold bracelets (m)+(f) ma^arti tsmidim.

I wore my dress (m…)+(f) lavashti et ha’simla sheli. (sheli: my or mine)

 

 

Future Tense

I will break the bottle (m)+(f) eshbor et ha’bakbuk.

We will count the books (m)+(f) nispor et ha’sfarim.

I will drive his car (m)+(f) enhag ba’me^onit shelo (his = shelo).

I will close the bottle (m)+(f) esgor et ha’bakbuk.

I will sell the ring (m)+(f) emkor et ha’tabaat

I will wear the dress (m…)+(f) elbash et ha’simla.

 

OK, and what about “I counted books” which I asked you about before?

I counted books – safarti sfarim. Looks similar?
The word sofer (count) is a verb. Its root is ” s.f.r.”

The word sefer (book) is a noun, and although we haven’t studied it yet, there are some nouns which have a root. The root for book, sefer, is also “ s.f.r.”

After this lesson, you may have some questions. If you don’t, something is wrong… because I used some inflections you haven’t seen before…

I’ll be waiting for your questions via my e-mail address, our Comments section here, or in our Facebook group…

Lehitraot in lesson 46…

You are welcome to join our group on Facebook:
http://www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=230884728509.

Heblish – Hebrew lessons: Day 43

Future tense – Eitan letters

Free Hebrew lessons – October 2010 – Training – Day 43

Shalom,

Today we have a long and very important lesson.
If you only have a few minutes, you can just read the summary at the end of the lesson, but if you really want to learn Hebrew, let’s start…

In our previous lesson we talked about Definite and Indefinite articles. I taught you that in Hebrew there is no indefinite article “a,” and I showed you that we use the sound “ha” (which is only one vowel in Hebrew), instead of the word “the.”

Today we will talk about the future…

It would be amazing if we could sit together and guess what the future has in store for us… but, we will leave that for astrologers and concentrate on our Hebrew lessons.   ;-)   
BTW, here is one of my astrology websites.

 

Today’s menu: Future tense – Eitan letters

Attention: The underlined letters represent the accent.

Today we will talk about the future tense and we’ll taste a bit about “roots.”

We’re only going to use one verb for our examples today – close.
We learned this verb in lesson 39, and many of you did homework about it.

As you have already seen, in Hebrew we don’t use “am, are” and “is.” So, from now on I won’t need to write: “I am,” “you are,” “he is” etc… I will only use “I, you, he, we” etc. in my tables/examples.

Look at this table and read the following explanation.

Closesoger

English Pronouns Verb Hebrew Pronouns Hebrew Verb Future Tense
         
Singular        
I (m) close Ani soger esgor
I (f) close Ani sogeret esgor
         
You (m) close Ata soger tisgor
You (f) close At sogeret tisgeri
         
He (m) closes Hu soger isgor
She (f)  closes Hi sogeret tisgor
         
Plural        
We (m) close Ana^nu sogrim nisgor
We (f) close Ana^nu sogrot nisgor
         
You (m) close Atem sogrim tisgeru
You (f) close Aten sogrot tisgorna
         
They (m) close Hem sogrim isgeru
They (f) close Hen sogrot tisgorna

 

Now, after you read the verbs in the table above, I will teach you the rules for future tense, step-by-step.

1. In Hebrew every verb has a root.
Most roots consist of 3 consonants.
At this point we won’t discuss word roots in detail, because the concept of word roots is not easy to understand, especially since I can’t show you the root letters in Heblish (meaning, in English letters).  However, one day we will try to learn more about roots.

The only thing I want to say about roots is that the root of the word “close,” (soger) is “s.g.r.”
What do I mean by that?

Look at the verbs above. You can easily find the letters “s,” “g” and “r” in each verb.  This is the root of the verb “soger.”
That’s true for past tense, present tense and future tense.

 

2. In the future tense, there are four possible prefix letters before the root.
If you learn them, you will be able to conjugate almost every Hebrew verb in the future tense.
The letters are: e, i, t and n, and in Hebrew the name of this group of letters is “Eitan.”
Most of the time we use these 4 prefixes as the Eitan letters.
 

In the future I will show you some exceptions.

Let’s look again. I capitalized the root’s letters “S,” “G” and “R” and bolded the four special prefix letters.

Closesoger

English Pronouns Verb Hebrew Pronouns Future Tense
       
Singular      
I (m) close Ani esgor       eSGoR
I (f) close Ani esgor       eSGoR
       
You (m) close Ata tisgor      tiSGoR
You (f) close At tisgeri     tiSGeRi
       
He (m) closes Hu isgor        iSGoR
She (f)  closes Hi tisgor      tiSGoR
       
Plural      
We (m) close Ana^nu nisgor     niSGoR
We (f) close Ana^nu nisgor     niSGoR
       
You (m) close Atem tisgeru    tiSGeRu
You (f) close Aten tisgorna  tiSGoRna
       
They (m) close Hem isgeru     iSGeRu
They (f) close Hen tisgorna  tiSGoRna

 

The rule:
In the future tense, there are four possible prefix letters before the root.
1) The letters are: e, i, t or n.
2) This rule is for all future tense Hebrew verbs, in all 7 Hebrew forms.
3) Every verb in the future tense must have one of the “Eitan” letters as the first letter of the word.

Here it is in detail.
Don’t try to remember it, yet. I will give an easy way to remember the rules.

   – For “I” (ani) we add the letter “e” before the root.
  
   – For “he” (m) (hu) and for
            “they” (m) (hem), we add the letter “i” before the root.

   – For “you” (m) and (f) singular and plural (ata, at, atem, aten) and for
            “she” (hi) and they (f) (hen), we add the letter “t” before the root.

   – For “we” (m) and (f) (ana^nu), we add the letter “n” before the root.

Here it is on a table:

English Pronouns Hebrew Pronouns   Eitan letters   Future Tense Remarks
             
             
I (m) Ani   e   esgor  
I (f) Ani   e   esgor  
             
He (m) Hu   i   isgor  
They (m) Hem   i   isgeru  
             
You (m) Ata   t   tisgor Only the “t” is one of the “Eitan” letters. The “i” (the second letter) is just a vowel.
You (f) At   t   tisgeri The same
You (m) plural Atem   t   tisgeru The same
You (f) plural Aten   t   tisgorna The same
She (f)  Hi   t   tisgor The same
They (f) Hen   t   tisgorna The same
             
We (m) Ana^nu   n   nisgor The same; the “i” here is just a vowel.
We (f) Ana^nu   n   nisgor The same

 

Or simpler:

Person Hebrew Pronouns Eitan letters
     
     
First person (singular) Ani e
     
     
Third person (masculine) Hu, hem i
     
Second person + third person (feminine) Ata, at, atem, aten, hi, hen t
     
First person (plural)  Ana^nu n

 

Summary (and a simple way to remember):

- For every verb in the future tense in Hebrew, we use one of the “Eitan” prefixes:  e, i, t or n before the root.
- The Eitan prefix letter will be always the first letter of the verb.
- This rule is for ALL 7 forms of verbs in Hebrew – meaning, all Hebrew verbs!

The best way to remember which of the Eitan prefixes to use is:

- First person (singular) – e
- First person (plural) – n

- Third person (masculine) – i

- All the others – t

Simple  ;-)   

Is your head spinning?  Don’t be discouraged!  If you just keep studying the table and memorize which “Eitan” prefix letter goes with which personal pronoun, you will quickly master the future tense.

Lehitraot in lesson 44, I promise you an easier lesson…

You are welcome to join our group on Facebook:
http://www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=230884728509.

Heblish – Hebrew lessons: Day 39

Verbs

Free Hebrew lessons – September 2010 – Training – Day 39

Hi,

When we started our challenge (in our next lesson I will explain why “challenge?…”), I said that I would not give lessons during holidays – yours or mine. However, from the many e-mails you have sent me, I understand how important these lessons are for you, so… even though today is another holiday – Succot, I decided to publish this lesson. 

In our previous lessons we talked about the holidays Rosh Ha’shana and Yom Kippur, but before that, in lesson 36 we learned some verbs in the present tense plural, like: we sit, you sit, they sit -
Ana^nu yoshvim, atem yoshvim, hem yoshvim for masculine,

And: We sit, you sit, they sit:  
Ana^nu yoshvot, aten yoshvot, hen yoshvot for feminine.

This is going to be a DOUBLE lesson (I’ll tell you why, later), so… sweep your desk clean, get comfortable and focused…  

 

Today’s menu: Verbs

Attention: The underlined letters represent the accent.

Some of you have asked me to explain how to start and continue a conversation, others have asked me to explain the difference between “had” and “was,” how to say “I had a car, I had no time,” and when and how to use past tense versus past participle, etc…

I really want to teach you all of these things and more, but there are many words and concepts to learn, so we must focus on one thing at a time. The solution: each of you can be part of our Heblish group on Facebook and ask me your specific questions there. This would be great for three reasons.  First, all of the other students will read your questions and learn from my responses; second, I can answer you outside the framework of the lessons; and third, it will give me some ideas for our future lessons.  This will help us all since I’m not a teacher; I’m just a person who has an excellent knowledge of the Hebrew language (but not great English) trying to teach you my language in your language… can you imagine?  ;-)

Today, I will teach you six new verbs in the present tense and you will try to conjugate them yourself…

I’m going to give you the persons table: I, you, he, etc… and a complete table for one verb.

Usually our Heblish words are in blue, but for the tables below I am using orange for the feminine words to help you see the difference between masculine and feminine.  And, by the way, I do understand that the concept of “feminine” and “masculine” verbs, nouns, adjective, etc. is very odd to English speakers, but it’s basic to the Hebrew language.
After that table, I want you to try solving the other tables yourself. (I have not left the tables completely blank; you will see where you need to fill in the missing words)

My suggestion is, copy the tables, solve them and send them to me by e-mail. If you like, you can add more questions regarding Hebrew to your e-mail and I promise to check your homework and answer your questions. So, you will have a private teacher for this lesson… ;-)

First, here is the complete persons table:

English subject pronouns Hebrew subject pronouns
   
Singular  
I / I am (m) Ani
I / I am (f) Ani
   
You / you are (m) Ata
You / you are (f) At
   
He / he is (m) Hu
She / she is (f)  Hi (remember, the “i” sounds like “ee”)
   
Plural  
We / we are (m) Ana^nu
We / we are (f)   Ana^nu
   
You / you are (m) Atem
You / you are (f) Aten
   
They / they are (m) Hem
They / they are (f) Hen

 

Let’s learn the new verbs (m):

English Verb Hebrew Verb
(I) break (Ani) shover
(I) count (Ani) sofer
(I) drive (Ani) noheg
(I) close (Ani) soger
(I) sell (Ani) mo^er
(I) wear (Ani) lovesh

 

In the above table you just learned 6 new verbs.
Can you tell me what these six new words have in common?

“Listen” to the sound of them: shover, sofer, noheg, soger, mo^er, lovesh

1. They all have only two syllables.
2. The accent is on the last syllable.
3. They all have this sound: o-E, o-E, sho-ver, so-fer, no-heg, so-ger, mo-^er, lo-vesho-E… can you hear this?

Now let’s see a complete table for the first verb, break (shover), but first, let’s remember this rule:
In the present – there are only 4 inflections for every Hebrew verb:
- Singular for (m), singular for (f), plural for (m) and plural for (f).
What do I mean by that?

I mean that a verb following
I (m), is the same for you (m), and also for he (m), and a verb following
I (f), is the same for you (f), and also for she (f), and a verb following
We (m), is the same for you (m), and also for they (m), and a verb following
We (f), is the same for you (f), and also for they (f).

Break – shover

English Pronouns Verb Hebrew Pronouns Hebrew Verb
       
Singular      
I / I am (m) break/breaking Ani shover
I / I am (f) break/breaking Ani shoveret
       
You / you are (m) break/breaking Ata shover
You / you are (f) break/breaking At shoveret
       
He / he is (m) breaks/breaking Hu shover
She / she is (f)  breaks/breaking Hi shoveret
       
Plural      
We / we are break/breaking Ana^nu shovrim
We / we are break/breaking Ana^nu shovrot
       
You / you are (m) break/breaking Atem shovrim
You / you are (f) break/breaking Aten shovrot
       
They / they are (m) break/breaking Hem shovrim
They / they are (f) break/breaking Hen shovrot

 

 

Count – sofer

English Pronouns Verb Hebrew Pronouns Hebrew Verb
       
Singular      
I / I am (m) count/counting Ani sofer
I / I am (f) count/counting Ani soferet
       
You / you are (m) count/counting Ata sofer
You / you are (f) count/counting At ?
       
He / he is (m) counts/counting Hu ?
She / she is (f)  counts/counting Hi soferet
       
Plural      
We / we are count/counting Ana^nu sofrim
We / we are count/counting Ana^nu sofrot
       
You / you are (m) count/counting Atem ?
You / you are (f) count/counting Aten sofrot
       
They / they are (m) count/counting Hem ?
They / they are (f) count/counting Hen ?

 

Drive – noheg

English Pronouns Verb Hebrew Pronouns Hebrew Verb
       
Singular      
I / I am (m) drive/driving Ani noheg
I / I am (f) drive/driving Ani noheget
       
You / you are (m) drive/driving Ata noheg
You / you are (f) drive/driving At ?
       
He / he is (m) drives/driving Hu ?
She / she is (f)  drives/driving ? noheget
       
Plural      
We / we are drive/driving Ana^nu nohagim
We / we are drive/driving Ana^nu nohagot
       
You / you are (m) drive/driving Atem ?
You / you are (f) drive/driving Aten ?
       
They / they are (m) drive/driving Hem ?
They / they are (f) drive/driving ? nohagot

 

Closesoger

English Pronouns Verb Hebrew Pronouns Hebrew Verb
       
Singular      
I / I am (m) close/closing Ani soger
I / I am (f) close/closing ? ?
       
You / you are (m) close/closing Ata ?
You / you are (f) close/closing At sogeret
       
He / he is (m) closes/closing Hu soger
She / she is (f)  closes/closing ? sogeret
       
Plural      
We / we are close/closing Ana^nu ?
We / we are close/closing Ana^nu sogrot
       
You / you are (m) close/closing ? sogrim
You / you are (f) close/closing Aten ?
       
They / they are (m) close/closing Hem sogrim
They / they are (f) close/closing Hen sogrot

 

Sell – mo^er

English Pronouns Verb Hebrew Pronouns Hebrew Verb
       
Singular      
I / I am (m) sell/selling Ani ?
I / I am (f) sell/selling ? mo^eret
       
You / you are (m) sell/selling Ata mo^er
You / you are (f) sell/selling At ?
       
He / he is (m) sells/selling ? ?
She / she is (f)  sells/selling Hi  
       
Plural      
We / we are sell/selling Ana^nu ?
We / we are sell/selling ? mo^rot
       
You / you are (m) sell/selling ? ?
You / you are (f) sell/selling Aten ?
       
They / they are (m) sell/selling ? mo^rim
They / they are (f) sell/selling Hen ?

 

Wear – lovesh

English Pronouns Verb Hebrew Pronouns Hebrew Verb
       
Singular      
I / I am (m) wear/wearing ? ?
I / I am (f) wear/wearing ? loveshet
       
You / you are (m) wear/wearing ? ?
You / you are (f) wear/wearing At ?
       
He / he is (m) wears/wearing Hu ?
She / she is (f)  wears/wearing ?  
       
Plural      
We / we are wear/wearing Ana^nu ?
We / we are wear/wearing ? ?
       
You / you are (m) wear/wearing ? ?
You / you are (f) wear/wearing ? ?
       
They / they are (m) wear/wearing ? lovshim
They / they are (f) wear/wearing ? ?

 

I know…whew!  This lesson covered a lot of ground, but I think we need some repetitive “fill in the blank” work to really cement these basic grammar rules into our minds.  Start with the first table, and I bet by the time you come to the last table you find it is very easy and you will be proud of what you have accomplished.

Now here’s the reason for today’s “DOUBLE” lesson… next Thursday is the second holiday of Succot, so we will not have our regular lesson.  The timing is perfect, because I wanted to give you extra time to work on your homework (the tables). 

I will be monitoring our Free-Hebrew FB Group and looking for your homework in my e-mail, so…. 

Lehitraot in October, in lesson 40 … 40?… Yes, 40 ;-)

You are welcome to join our group on Facebook:
http://www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=230884728509.